The right to believe, to worship and witness
The right to change one’s belief or religion
The right to join together and express one’s belief
TURKMENISTAN: Heavy fines for registered but "illegal" Baptist worship
Despite being members of their nationally-registered Church, five Baptists in the eastern city of Turkmenabad (formerly Charjou) were fined two months' average wages in late March to punish them for holding a small service which the secret police claim was "illegal". If they fail to pay by 10 April, the fines will be doubled, Protestants have told Forum 18 News Service. When the service was raided, officers insulted one Baptist, asking her why she was a Christian and insisting that it would be better for the Baptists to follow the Islamic faith of their forebears. "The security police don't even know the new religion law which allows us to meet," one Protestant complained to Forum 18. "They just wanted to make fun of the Baptists."
Trouble for the five – Narmurat Mominov and four others - began in the evening of 1 March, after two other people joined a service the five were holding in a hostel where one of the Baptists lived. Local authority, police and National Security Ministry secret police officers raided the service, but presented no identification documents.
When the Baptists showed the officials a copy of the Baptist Church's registration certificate issued by the Adalat (Fairness or Justice) ministry in the capital Ashgabad – which describes the Church as working in the whole country – the officials rejected it, insisting the Baptists were meeting "illegally". The secret police officers claimed the certificate was invalid as it related only to the Baptist congregation in Ashgabad. "The security police don't even know the new religion law which allows us to meet," one Protestant told Forum 18. "They just wanted to make fun of the Baptists."
One of the two Baptist women present was insulted by the officials, who also confiscated her identity document. "They asked her why she was a Christian, telling her 'We have our own religion'," Protestants told Forum 18. "The officials told the Baptists it is better to be of the Islamic faith like their forebears." The officials confiscated Christian materials, including a tape, a copy of a Turkmen-language New Testament and a Bible, and several booklets.
The five were removed to the police station, where their fingerprints were taken. They were held for five hours and pressured to write statements about why they had become Christians and what religious activity they were involved in. All five were eventually freed after midnight, but told to report again the following morning with their identity documents.
When they returned to the police station they were met by officials from the prosecutor's office, who explained that if the Baptists' registration was indeed in order they would not be punished. However, the case was then handed to the secret police, which continued to seek punishment.
The five were later handed administrative fines each of 1,500,000 manats (approximately 380 Norwegian kroner, 45 Euros or 60 US dollars at the street exchange rate, though nearly five times as much at the vastly inflated official exchange rate), to be doubled if they failed to pay by the 10 April deadline. Average wages in Turkmenistan are below 30 US dollars per month. The fines appear to have been levied under Article 205 of the Code of Administrative Offences, which punishes violations of the law on religion.
The Baptists believe the two people who also attended the 1 March service might have been spies for the authorities, though Forum 18 has been unable to verify this. However, Baptists insist that none of their congregations in Turkmenistan have anything to hide.
Protestant sources say that in general, restrictions on their activity have eased in recent months, so they were surprised by the harsh moves against the Turkmenabad Baptists. One of those fined had been summoned by the secret police while visiting his home village last January, where he was pressured by secret police officers and the head of the local administration, who accused him (wrongly) of being a Jehovah's Witness. The secret police told him they would never get official permission to operate, but if they worked "quietly and not actively" they would not face problems.
This contrasts with earlier years, when Protestants were among religious believers fined, beaten and sacked from their work in retaliation for their religious practice.
Although the Baptist Church was among four religious minority communities granted a registration certificate last summer after intense international pressure, for months the Adalat Ministry refused to complete the registration by granting the official stamp the Church needed to issue any official documents. However, this has now been handed over. Similarly, the Adventist Church registered at about the same time was for more than half a year denied permission to rent premises in Ashgabad for worship. However, this obstruction was removed earlier this year (see F18News 28 February 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=521).
However, the activity of registered communities remains restricted, with officials insisting that no religious meetings can be held in private homes. Registered congregations are also pressured to subscribe to the grotesque cult of personality around the country's president, Saparmurat Niyazov, which focuses particularly on the two-volume book the Ruhnama (Book of the Soul) which he claims to have written (see F18News 1 March 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=522).
Members of other faiths have complained to Forum 18 that the registration process has once again come to a halt. "The authorities are only prepared to register those groups that had registration in Soviet times," one leader who preferred not to be identified told Forum 18. "Our registration was lodged last summer and we've heard nothing about any progress. When we ask they say 'you're not the only ones' and 'we've got lots of other work to do'. Still, they can't complain we're refusing to register." (END)
For more background, see Forum 18's Turkmenistan religious freedom survey at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=296
A printer-friendly map of Turkmenistan is available at
16 March 2005
COMMENTARY: No religious freedom without democracy: a lesson from "Orange Ukraine"
Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko's surprise announcement last month of the abolition of the State Committee for Religious Affairs is a powerful signal to the rest of the region that governments should end their meddling in religious life, argues former Soviet political prisoner Professor Myroslav Marynovych, who is now vice-rector of the Ukrainian Catholic University http://www.ucu.edu.ua in Lviv, in this personal commentary for Forum 18 News Service http://www.forum18.org. He regards the feeling in Ukraine that the communist model of controlling religion is now dead as the greatest gain of the "Orange Revolution" in the sphere of religion. Yet Professor Marynovych warns that other countries will find it hard to learn from the proclaimed end of Ukrainian government interference in religious matters without wider respect for human rights and accountable government. Without democratic change – which should bring in its wake greater freedom for religious communities from state control and meddling - it is unlikely that religious communities will escape from government efforts to control them.
1 March 2005
TURKMENISTAN: President's personality cult imposed on religious communities
Amongst pressures on religious communities is a government-enforced cult of President Niyazov's personality. Forum 18 News Service has learnt that Muslims face mounting pressure to venerate the president's two volume ideological book, the Ruhnama (Book of the Soul), while Russian Orthodox churches must have a minimum of two copies of the Ruhnama. One government minister claimed that the Ruhnama would make up for shortcomings in both the Bible and the Koran, neither of which were, he claimed, fully adequate for the spiritual needs of Turkmens. The personality cult includes a massive mosque decorated with quotations from the Ruhnama, a gold statue in Ashgabad that revolves to follow the sun and a monument to the Ruhnama. Also important in the President's cult are his books of poetry, and Muslim clerics were last month told that "it was a priority task for clergymen to disseminate the lofty ideas in our great leader's sacred books on the duties of parents and children."
28 February 2005
TURKMENISTAN: "What's the point of registering?"
Religious communities with state registration - Seventh-day Adventists, some Baptists, Bahais, Hare Krishna and Muslims - have recently seen some improvement in their freedom to meet for worship, but almost all complain of being unable to worship outside approved places and of the ban on printing or importing religious literature. Russian Orthodox parishes are expecting registration in March. The leader of one religious community, which has decided not to register, complained to Forum 18 News Service that "even if you get registration there are so many things you can't do." Harassment of unregistered religious communities, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, continues. Turkmen President Niyazov has reportedly stated of unregistered religious communities that, if they are good and agree to cooperate with the SSM secret police, there is no reason not to register them. Questioned by Forum 18 about why the government is secretive about its policy, an official insisted that the policy is not secret – but would not give any information.