The right to believe, to worship and witness
The right to change one’s belief or religion
The right to join together and express one’s belief
RUSSIA: Church, mosque and synagogue kept by southern authorities
In southern Russia, three confessions regarded as "traditional" – the Greek Orthodox, Muslims and Jews – have all failed to win back places of worship confiscated by the state in Communist times, Forum 18 News Service has found. The Greek Orthodox community in the city of Krasnodar is part of the Moscow Patriarchate and has the support of its local Russian Orthodox bishop. Yet it has failed to get the authorities to return a church it can prove belonged to it, which now houses a state sanitation and disease control department. The city's Progressive Jewish community has now abandoned its nine year struggle to win back a pre-revolutionary synagogue in the city centre the community once used, which is now a government trade department. In the neighbouring region of Stavropol, the local Muslim community has similarly fought in vain for over ten years for the restitution of a pre-revolutionary city mosque, now used as the Stavropol city museum.
Currently scattered among Russian Orthodox parishes, there are approximately 1,000 practising Greek Orthodox in Krasnodar region, Amanatov estimates. While they are content to be under the Moscow Patriarchate and currently have access to priests who have a reasonable knowledge of Greek, he told Forum 18, the Greek Orthodox would be able to worship as one parish led by an ethnic Greek priest if they had their own church. In particular, pointed out Amanatov, parishioners could then make their confessions in Greek and obtain commemoration services for the thousands of Greek victims of the 1915 genocide in present-day eastern Turkey and local Stalinist purges directed against Greeks in 1938.
Amanatov has proof from Krasnodar Regional State Archive that a building in the centre of the city - whose façade retains a frieze of crosses - belonged to the Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation from 1906-24. His community, however, has received only refusals from state representatives ever since local Russian Orthodox metropolitan Isidor (Kirichenko) first formally requested its return on 8 February 1997. In 1998 a representative of Krasnodar mayor's office wrote that it was not possible to return the building because Russia's federal law on the rehabilitation of repressed peoples applied only to nationalities violently repressed by the state, which "bore no relation" to Krasnodar's Greek community of 1924. In 2000 another mayor's office representative added that legislation specifically stating that the Greek people had been repressed would be required before the building could be returned. Moreover, argued the official, President Yeltsin's April 1993 decree ordering property restitution to religious organisations related only to federal property, and Krasnodar's municipal authorities in any case had no alternative premises for the current occupants, a state sanitation and disease control department.
Encouraged when a June 2001 Russian government decree on the procedure for returning federal property to religious organisations mentioned municipal as well as federal property, Amanatov wrote to mayor of Krasnodar Nikolai Priz in early 2002 with yet another request for the building. A month later, however, he received a response from the city's property department stating that the decree was only a recommendation, and that, since it currently housed the state sanitation and disease control department, "the administration of Krasnodar city has no grounds to review the question of returning the given property to other persons".
In the neighbouring region of Stavropol, the local Muslim community has similarly fought in vain for over ten years for the restitution of a pre-revolutionary city mosque, which currently houses Stavropol's regional museum. According to a March 2004 statement from the Council of Muslim Religious Organisations in Stavropol City, the region's arbitration court finally refused to hear a case set to decide the issue - after seven months of preliminary deliberations - on the grounds that it was "outside its competency". The local Muslim community was forced to file suit with the court in the first place, explains the statement, because the Stavropol regional authorities repeatedly refused to acknowledge receipt of a 31 December 1999 instruction issued by Russia's Ministries of Culture and State Property demanding the return of the former mosque to local Muslims.
In late October 2004 Mufti Ismail Berdiyev of the Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Karachai-Cherkessia and Stavropol Region maintained to Forum 18 that the Stavropol regional authorities' apparent support for the creation of a local muftiate separate from his own was due to his insistence upon the return to believers of the historical mosque in Stavropol city. "They offered us other premises but we didn't agree because I can't pass up on an existing mosque building under sharia law," he explained, "so they have found others who would go along with them" (see F18News 9 November 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=448).
Also contacted by Forum 18 in late October, Stavropol regional religious affairs official Vasili Shnyukov declined to respond to questions by telephone.
Another confession usually counted as "traditional" in Russia, Krasnodar's Progressive Jewish community gave up trying to win back a pre-revolutionary synagogue in the city centre after approximately nine years, its chairman Georgi Gonik remarked as he showed Forum 18 the building in late September. Now a government trade department and formally a youth radio school, Gonik recalled that the local authorities had said that the Jews would have to build new premises for the school in order to receive the building, "but we didn't have the means". Currently the 70-strong Progressive Jewish congregation is able to meet for worship at nearby rented premises, he added, "although there isn't enough space at festivals."
In late October 2004, Krasnodar region's religious affairs official, Aleksandr Babskov, said that he did not have official confirmation that the building in question had ever been a synagogue, and claimed to be unaware of any official claim to it by a religious community. (END)
For background information see Forum 18's Russia religious freedom survey at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=116
A printer-friendly map of Russia is available at
21 January 2005
UZBEKISTAN: Prisoner's wife on trial to show "who is boss here"
Halima Boltobayeva, a Muslim whose husband is in jail, was told by prison staff when visiting her husband that she dressed like a female Muslim terrorist, Forum 18 News Service has been told. Boltobayeva, who for religious reasons wears the hijab headscarf and a long garment that covers her entire body, retorted that she would dress as she believed was fitting. According to a local human rights activist, prison staff then decided to show her "who is boss here." She is now on trial accused of being a member of the banned Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir, even though she has stated that "she hated Hizb ut-Tahrir as her husband had ended up in prison because of the organisation."
7 December 2004
RUSSIA: Southern Protestants' mixed fortunes
Protestants in the southern Krasnodar and Stavropol regions have all told Forum 18 News Service that their situation has improved since the 1990s, but several church leaders reported local obstructions in obtaining and using property for worship, similar to the problems faced by a local Christian university in conducting religious education. In early 2004, President Vladimir Putin's then representative in southern Russia praised Protestant social initiatives - especially alcoholism and drug addiction rehabilitation programmes - and one church leader told Forum 18 that his churches encounter no substantial state opposition to their activity. Cossack influence in southern Russia appears to be waning, after sometimes violent attacks in against Protestants during the 1990s. Local leaders of the (Nestorian) Assyrian Church of the East, Mountain Jews, and Yasin Muslims also reported variations in state policy towards their attempts to secure worship premises and provide religious education.
29 November 2004
RUSSIA: Governor links Jehovah's Witnesses and Islamic militants as "destructive cults"
Stavropol regional governor Aleksandr Chernogorov has linked Jehovah's Witnesses and Islamic militants as "destructive cults" at a major local conference on "Totalitarian Sects – the Path to the Destabilisation of the North Caucasus". Chernogorov maintained that "Wahhabism" and "Jehovism" [a Soviet-era term for the Jehovah's Witnesses' faith] had infiltrated into southern Russia and were now "attacking those confessions which provide the foundation of civil peace" – Orthodoxy and "traditional" Islam. Jehovah's Witnesses "think that this might be the beginning of something," local Jehovah's Witness representative Ivan Borshchevsky has told Forum 18 News Service. Recently, Jehovah's Witnesses have had increasing difficulties with the authorities. The Stavropol regional religious affairs official has declined to discuss these matters with Forum 18.