The right to believe, to worship and witness
The right to change one’s belief or religion
The right to join together and express one’s belief
UZBEKISTAN: Another Muslim "extremist" jailed
Khabibulo Khadmarov, a devout Muslim from the Fergana [Farghona] Valley, has been sentenced to six years in jail. The main accusation was that he was a member of Tabligh and that a manuscript found on him contained "extremist" sentiments. However, one human rights activist, Akhmajon Madmarov, described it to Forum 18 News Service as "a standard work of theology". The staff of the local university philosophy department, who analysed the manuscript, were described to Forum 18 by Madmarov as "the same as those who worked there in Soviet times. In other words, the people who are today acting as experts on Islam are the same as those who previously used to demonstrate the harmfulness and anti-scientific nature of religion." Tabligh members in Central Asia insist on their commitment to the group's original avowedly apolitical foundation.
Judge Burkhan Usmanov of Margelan's criminal court sentenced Khadmarov under article 159 (undermining the constitutional basis) and Article 244 (2) (establishment of, leadership of or participation in religious extremist organisations) of the criminal code.
Usmanov admitted to Forum 18 that membership of Tabligh was one of the main accusations against Khadmarov and that the only substantial evidence that he had engaged in "extremist" activity was that a manuscript was found in his possession during a search. "We sent it for analysis to the Department of Philosophy at the Fergana Polytechnic Institute," Usmanov told Forum 18 on 18 June in Margelan. "Academics there concluded that the manuscript advocated Islamic radicalism and a return to the times of the caliphate."
The judge gave Forum 18 a quote from the manuscript which he said illustrated his view that it contained extremist sentiments: "People's ailments stem from the fact that they have departed from Islam and are not striving for spiritual improvement. Humanity can only be saved through the teachings of Islam."
Madmarov rejected this description of the manuscript that Khadmarov was found with, describing it as "a standard work of theology". "It's also significant that staff at the philosophy department, which in Soviet times was called the department of scientific atheism, are acting as experts on Islam," he told Forum 18. "The teachers at the department are the same as those who worked there in Soviet times. In other words, the people who are today acting as experts on Islam are the same as those who previously used to demonstrate the harmfulness and anti-scientific nature of religion."
He said that unlike members of the banned Islamic group Hizb-ut-Tahrir, which advocates the establishment of a worldwide caliphate ruled by Sharia law, members of Tabligh "emphatically distance themselves from politics". "Their only aim is to preach Islam. Their activity is very like the work of Protestant preachers, who are very active in disseminating their views in Central Asia." Madmarov pointed out that in neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, Tabligh functions completely freely, adding that until recently the Uzbek authorities had closed their eyes to Tabligh's activity.
Madmarov told Forum 18 that only one legal case has been recorded against Tabligh members: on 13 March the criminal court for Fergana region sentenced 14 members from Kokand, a town in Uzbekistan's section of the Fergana valley, to lengthy prison terms, but shortly afterwards they were all released under an amnesty. The valley is well-known for the high proportion of devout Muslims in its population.
Maulana Ilyas founded the Tabligh Jama'at in India in about 1927 as a missionary movement aimed at bringing Muslims back to the faith of the time of the prophet Mohammed and promoting Muslim unity. He advocated the separation of Muslims from religious believers of other faiths.
In other parts of the world, such as Zanzibar, groups with the name Tabligh have been associated with radical Islamists. However there does not appear to be a connection between radical Islamists and the Tabligh in Central Asia, and its members in the region insist on their commitment to the group's original avowedly apolitical foundation.
For more background, see Forum 18's latest religious freedom survey at
A printer-friendly map of Uzbekistan is available at
15 June 2004
UZBEKISTAN: Threats against lawyer's wife and young children
It is believed that the Uzbek authorities are behind anonymous night-time telephone calls and continuing threats being made against the wife and young children of Rustam Satdanov, a lawyer forced to flee Uzbekistan and seek political asylum in the USA for his work defending Jehovah's Witnesses. Satdanov received political asylum on 11 May. His wife, Asiya Satdanova, and their young children, who are still in Tashkent, told Forum 18 News Service that they are being anonymously threatened with "serious difficulties" if Satdanov does not return immediately to Uzbekistan. He himself told Forum 18 that if he returns the authorities would, using fabricated criminal charges, punish him for defending religious believers.
11 June 2004
UZBEKISTAN: Punished for signing a failed registration application
On 1 June a court in the western town of Navoi found Jehovah's Witness Tatyana Briguntsova guilty of membership of an unregistered religious organisation, solely because she put herself down as a founding member of the community in a failed registration application some years ago. She told Forum 18 News Service that police had never recorded her as attending an unregistered meeting. As unregistered religious activity is illegal in Uzbekistan, in defiance of international agreements, this precedent means that any believer who signs a religious community's registration application that is then rejected could lay themselves open to punishment.
10 June 2004
COMMENTARY: Religious freedom, the best counter to religious extremism
Islamic religious extremism in Uzbekistan – which threatens to spread in Central Asia and elsewhere - is largely the result of government repression and lack of democracy, Azerbaijani scholar and translator of the Koran Nariman Gasimoglu, head of the Center for Religion and Democracy http://addm.az.iatp.net/ana.html in Baku and a former Georgetown University (USA) visiting scholar, argues in this personal commentary for Forum 18 News Service http://www.forum18.org. Extremist Islamist groups, like the banned Hizb ut-Tahrir party, which do not yet enjoy widespread support, have been strengthened by repression while moderate Muslims, Protestants and Jehovah's Witnesses have suffered. The best, if not the only way to counter religious extremism, Gasimoglu maintains, is to open up society to religious freedom for all, democracy, and free discussion – even including Islamist groups. This is the only way, he argues, of depriving Islamic extremism of support by revealing the reality of what extremism in power would mean.