25 April 2016

RUSSIA: In 2015, 89 known individuals and communities prosecuted for religious literature

By Victoria Arnold, Forum 18

Unemployed Jehovah's Witness A. Bokov served six days in prison for possessing Jehovah's Witness literature the Russian authorities deem "extremist". Yevgeny Menshenin served five days in prison for sharing an Islamic video on a social network. Elista's Jehovah's Witness community and an Islamic community in Komsomolsk-on-Amur were each fined 100,000 Roubles for religious literature (Jehovah's Witnesses say the literature in Elista had been planted). These were some of the 89 known individuals and communities brought to court in 2015 under Administrative Code Article 20.29 for religious literature, Forum 18 News Service notes, a rise of a third on 2014. While more than half the prosecutions resulted from Islamic materials (many of them online), more than a third (a marked increase on 2014) were Jehovah's Witness texts. The other two were from Chinese spiritual movement Falun Gong.

A total of 89 individuals and religious communities across Russia are known to have been brought to court in 2015 for possession of literature dealing with religion or beliefs, Forum 18 News Service has found in an analysis of court records. None of this literature appears to incite the violation of human rights, violence or hatred. Of these, 79 ended up with punishments, including four individuals who received jail sentences.

These figures represent an increase on the previous year, when 56 punishments (all fines) resulted from 65 prosecutions for possession of religious literature the authorities deem "extremist" (see F18News 31 March 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2052).

The cases were brought under Article 20.29 of the Code of Administrative Offences ("Production or mass distribution of extremist materials"). In 33 cases, courts ordered the confiscated religious literature to be destroyed.

Short-term imprisonment

Two Muslims and two Jehovah's Witnesses received short-term jail sentences. Jehovah's Witness A. Bokov was initially detained for 10 days in Voronezh because he was unemployed with no source of income to pay a fine – his sentence was reduced on appeal to six days and he was released immediately after his appeal hearing on 9 December. In Krasnodar Region, Jehovah's Witness Vladimir Yeltavsky was sentenced to 12 days on 2 July but released on appeal the next day (see below).

Metin Karakoch, director of the Turkish Language Centre at Astrakhan State University, was detained for two days on 27 May for posting text from books by Islamic scholar Fethullah Gulen on a local internet forum – he subsequently left Russia for Turkey. In Perm Region on 26 March, Yevgeny Menshenin received a five-day sentence for sharing the video "The Wonders of the Koran" on the VKontakte social network (see below).

Islamic prosecutions continue, Jehovah's Witness prosecutions increase

Although a majority of cases involved banned Islamic texts or videos, prosecutions for alleged dissemination of Jehovah's Witness material have shown a marked increase throughout 2015, Forum 18 has observed (see below).

This is consistent with a general increase in law enforcement attention towards Jehovah's Witnesses in 2015 and 2016. This has included several attempts to liquidate local communities (see F18News 22 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2161), blocks on imports of Jehovah's Witness literature (see F18News 14 December 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2133), and an ongoing prosecutor's suit to outlaw as "extremist" the Jehovah's Witness translation of the Bible.

Article 20.29

Article 20.29 of the Administrative Code punishes "production or mass distribution of extremist materials included in the published Federal List of Extremist Materials, as well as their production or storage for mass distribution". Once a court – even a low-level court - has ruled a text "extremist" and the verdict has come into force, the ruling must be communicated within three days to the Justice Ministry, which maintains the Federal List. The item will then be added to the List within a further 30 days, banning its distribution throughout Russia.

Despite the term "mass distribution", prosecutors have often brought charges even if only one copy of a text is discovered. No state agency has answered Forum 18's questions on whether it is right that people should be punished for their possession and whether such prosecutions are a sensible use of police and prosecutors' time (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

The Russian authorities began similar prosecutions in Crimea soon after they annexed the territory from Ukraine in March 2014 (see Forum 18's Crimea religious freedom survey http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2051).

The Federal List now runs to over 3,000 items, often does not include full bibliographical details, and is irregularly updated. Checking whether a particular item is on the List can be very difficult or even impossible. The removal of an item from the Federal List is rare and can be short-lived, and in recent years, new texts have been added at an increasing rate (see F18News 27 July 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2084).

From 23 November 2015, an amendment to the Extremism Law stops some, but not all, sacred texts - "the Bible, the Koran, the Tanakh and the Kanjur, their contents, and quotations from them" - from being ruled "extremist" and placed on the Federal List (see F18News 30 November 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2126).

Massive fine increases in 2015

From May 2015, organisations in Russia – including religious communities – have faced sharply increased fines for the distribution of items on the Federal List (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062). Amendments signed into law by President Vladimir Putin doubled the minimum fine for "juridical persons" (which include commercial, publishing, media and registered religious organisations) to 100,000 Roubles (now 12,300 Norwegian Kroner, 1,300 Euros or 1,500 US Dollars). The maximum fine was raised 10-fold to 1 million Roubles.

The amendments have not increased fines for individuals or officials. If convicted, individuals continue to face a fine of between 1,000 and 3,000 Roubles, or up to 15 days' imprisonment. Fines for people acting in an official capacity (including individuals such as bookshop owners) range from 2,000 to 5,000 Roubles. (Each 1,000 Roubles is now equivalent to 120 Norwegian Kroner, 13 Euros or 15 US Dollars.)

Many other individuals are charged with offences under Article 20.29 for dissemination of material which does appear to incite the violation of human rights, violence or hatred. Forum 18 found a total of 849 cases under Article 20.29 in 2015 – this figure includes prosecutions for both religious and non-religious texts, videos, images, and songs, and for both material which does appear to be violent or racist and that which does not.

Consequences

Prosecutors may use convictions under Article 20.29 as evidence of "extremist" activity and grounds for the dissolution of a religious organisation. This has been the experience of six Jehovah's Witness communities so far (in Taganrog, Samara, Abinsk in Krasnodar Region, Tyumen in Siberia, and Belgorod and Stariy Oskol, both in Belgorod Region), although the Russian Supreme Court overturned the dissolution of the Tyumen congregation on 15 April 2016. Liquidation proceedings are continuing against a seventh community in Cherkessk in the North Caucasus (see F18News 22 March 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2161). One Muslim community, in Borovsky village in Tyumen Region, has also been dissolved for this reason (see F18News 3 December 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2020).

If an entire religious community is banned as "extremist", its former members may face criminal prosecution if they continue to meet informally. Sixteen Jehovah's Witnesses in Taganrog were convicted on 30 November 2015 of "continuing the activities of a banned extremist organisation" (see F18News 3 December 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2128). Rostov Regional Court rejected their appeals on 17 March 2016 and the convictions have now come into force.

On 2 March 2016, Russia's General Prosecutor's Office issued a written warning "that engaging in extremist activity is not permitted" to the Administrative Centre of Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia. This document, seen by Forum 18, makes specific reference to the distribution of prohibited literature as "extremist" activity which the Administrative Centre must prevent or face dissolution. The General Prosecutor's Office advises that "practical and organisational measures" must be taken within two months (ie. by 2 May) or the entire Jehovah's Witness association will be subject to liquidation.

2015 prosecutions

Fifty-five of the 89 known Article 20.29 cases for religious literature in 2015 were brought in relation to Islamic texts or videos, the same number as in 2014 (55 out of 65 cases). The number involving Jehovah's Witness literature, however, rose significantly, from only ten in 2014 (out of 65 cases) to 32 in 2015 (out of 89 cases). The other two cases in 2015 involved material produced by the Chinese spiritual movement Falun Gong.

Prosecutions for Jehovah's Witness texts also show an increase throughout 2015, with nine coming to court between January and April and five between May and August, rising to 18 in the last four months of the year.

Of the 89 known cases, 84 resulted in conviction in the first instance, and five in acquittal. Defendants appealed against 23 convictions, only one of which was overturned and another seven returned to the original court for re-examination. Another two sentences were reduced on appeal (although the convictions themselves remained). Of the seven cases which have gone to re-trial, four have led to acquittal and two to conviction (the outcome of the seventh is unknown).

Even if they are ultimately exonerated, defendants are forced to spend time, energy and money to counter the charges against them, Forum 18 notes.

Article 20.29 prosecutions in general are now overwhelmingly based on internet distribution of text, image, video or audio files (754 out of 849 total cases, both religious and non-religious), usually by means of social media and most often on the Russian VKontakte network (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

Prosecutions for religious material, however, are still dominated by hard copies of books and other literature and comprise the majority of "offline" cases found by Forum 18 (66 out of 95). Eighteen of the 23 cases involving online religious material were based on the sharing of the video "The Wonders of the Koran", which was banned by Nefteyugansk City Court in Tyumen Region on 7 April 2011 and does not appear to incite the violation of human rights, violence or hatred.

Effect of Orenburg ruling

Unusually, 2015 saw the removal from the Federal List of 50 Islamic texts originally banned in a 20-minute hearing at Orenburg's Lenin District Court in March 2012. Although the appeal against the "extremism" ruling on these items took place in February 2015, it was not until May that the ban was finally lifted and the titles did not disappear from the Federal List until mid-July (see F18News 27 July 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2084).

While there were 35 prosecutions for distribution of the Orenburg texts in 2014, this number fell to 18 in 2015 (mainly for offences allegedly committed before the 50 reprieved texts were removed from the Federal List or involving one of the other 18 books which remain banned). Forum 18 nevertheless found three prosecutions in the last four months of 2015 involving texts deleted from the List.

The 50 unbanned texts included popular prayer books often sold in bookshops, markets, and mosques. Their removal from the Federal List has led to a decline in the number of booksellers and shopkeepers charged under Article 20.29, from fourteen in 2014 to only two in 2015.

Organisations

Five registered religious organisations faced charges under Article 20.29 in 2015 (down from nine in 2014). Three of these were Jehovah's Witness communities and two were mosques.

Examples of Article 20.29 cases during 2015 include:

- on 2 October, R. Kuchukova was fined 1,000 Roubles at Kuibyshev District Court in Omsk for uploading the text of "Gardens of the Righteous" (unbanned in Orenburg) onto her VKontakte profile page. Neither the local FSB security service, which found the text while "monitoring the Omsk segment of the internet", nor Judge Galina Parkhomenko, acknowledged that the case should not legally have been initiated. When contacted by Forum 18, Judge Parkhomenko's office refused to explain by phone or by email why Kuchukova had been fined for material no longer considered "extremist" (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

- on 11 September, Elista's Jehovah's Witness community became the first known Jehovah's Witness organisation to be convicted under the new sentencing regulations introduced in May 2015, receiving a fine of 100,000 Roubles at Elista City Court. The community argued that the banned "extremist" material found by police in their building's grounds had been planted by unknown persons. On 15 February 2016, Jehovah's Witnesses stated on their main international website jw.org that law enforcement agencies in Russia "have increasingly resorted to fabricating evidence to justify charges of extremism against Jehovah's Witnesses" (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

- 58-year-old Jehovah's Witness elder Vladimir Yeltavsky was jailed for 12 days at Bryukhovetsk District Court in Krasnodar Region on 2 July, for allegedly giving copies of banned Jehovah's Witness brochures to a local resident at her home. Yeltavsky learned of the hearing only when bailiffs arrived to take him to court, less than an hour in advance, and was therefore unable to engage a lawyer or familiarise himself with the case materials. At an appeal hearing on 3 July, Yeltavsky was acquitted and released after 32 hours in custody, as the statute of limitations had expired before the case came to court (see F18News 14 October 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2111).

- in March, two residents of Kungur in Perm Region were convicted in separate cases of distributing the banned video "The Wonders of the Koran". Although they were sentenced just 24 hours apart by the same judge for the same offence, Ye. Belyayeva received a fine while Yevgeny Menshenin was jailed for five days. Neither the judge nor the prosecutor involved in these cases would explain to Forum 18 why Menshenin had been imprisoned (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

How prosecutions start

The majority of known Article 20.29 cases in 2015 arose from raids or inspections carried out by law enforcement officials, usually with the aim of "checking compliance with anti-extremism legislation", according to court verdicts. In a few cases against Jehovah's Witnesses, prosecutors brought charges after an individual handed in a text to the police or security services after receiving it in the street or at a meeting.

Known Article 20.29 "extremist" religious material cases from 2015

1. 24 December

Name: Z.E. Khalifayev

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Railway District Court, Voronezh

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" (banned Nefteyugansk City Court, Khanty-Mansiisk, Tyumen Region, 7 April 2011) uploaded onto social network, found during monitoring by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

2. 18 December

Name: M.Sh. Gumerov

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Dimitrovgrad City Court, Ulyanovsk Region

Material: One copy of Islamic text "Fortress of a Muslim" (banned Kurgan City Court, 16 February 2015; Ussuriysk District Court, Primorye, 31 July 2014) – shared with acquaintances and relatives and kept at defendant's home; admitted possession but denied distribution; copy apparently published by "Pik Dom Pechati" of Kazan – but no such edition appears on List

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Partially successful, returned for re-examination – 28 January, Ulyanovsk Regional Court; premature judgement with substantial procedural violations – points out discrepancy in bibliographical details; conviction overturned on re-examination – 16 February 2016, Dimitrovgrad City Court

3. 17 December

Name: Yekaterina Kuznetsova

Fine: 2,500 Roubles

Court: Tikhoretsk City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness text "Was Life Created?" (banned October District Court, Belgorod, 4 March 2015) distributed with other literature from trolley in the street with Leontyeva (see below); gave book to unknown man at his request, who then called police to report literature "aimed at undermining the foundations of Orthodoxy"

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Partially successful – returned for re-examination, 4 February, Krasnodar Regional Court, Judge Kharet Bors; conviction overturned on re-examination – 4 March 2016, Tikhoretsk City Court

4. 17 December

Name: Zinaida Leontyeva

Fine: 2,500 Roubles

Court: Tikhoretsk City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: as above – Jehovah's Witness book – with Kuznetsova

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Partially successful – returned for re-examination, 4 February, Krasnodar Regional Court; conviction overturned on re-examination – 4 March 2016, Tikhoretsk City Court

5. 17 December

Name: Gennady Rakhmanin

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Gulkevichi District Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts – "The Watchtower" magazine, "What does the Bible really teach?" and "Does God really care about us?" distributed at bus stop in Kavkazskaya village

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Partially successful – returned for re-examination, 9 February, Krasnodar Regional Court; re-trial on 24 March 2016, Gulkevichi District Court – outcome unknown

6. 16 December

Name: M.R. Miftakhutdinov

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Dimitrovgrad City Court, Ulyanovsk Region

Material: One copy of Islamic text "Fortress of a Muslim" (banned Kurgan City Court, 16 February 2015; Ussuriysk District Court, Primorye, 31 July 2014) kept at defendant's home "with the aim of mass distribution" and shared with acquaintances and relatives

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Partially successful, returned for re-examination – 4 February, Ulyanovsk Regional Court; conviction overturned on re-examination – 1 March 2016, Dimitrovgrad City Court

7. 7 December

Name: E.A. Sukhoyvanenkov

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: October District Court, Stavropol, Judge Aleksei Eminov

Material: Jehovah's Witness book "What does the Bible really teach?", found at defendant's home during search by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Unknown

Appeal: None

8. 4 December

Name: A.E. Bokov

Fine: None – 10 days' detention

Court: Komintern District Court, Voronezh

Material: Large quantity of Jehovah's Witness texts found in defendant's garage, including "What does the Bible really teach?" and "Drawing near to Jehovah", during search operation by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Partially successful – detention reduced to six days, ie. freed after appeal hearing – 9 December, Voronezh Regional Court (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

9. 3 December

Name: A.Ya. Tulyakov, imam of Makhalla No. 1814

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Pachelma District Court, Penza Region

Material: Islamic texts "Values of Ramadan" (banned Norilsk City Court, Krasnoyarsk Region, 29 December 2014) and "Values of Zikra" (banned by Pervouralsk City Court, Sverdlovsk Regional, 9 February 2015), Muhammad Zakariya Kandahlawi; "Tasavvuf", Osman Nuri Topbas (banned Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012 and 25 May 2015, ie. not one of those removed); found during law enforcement inspection on open bookshelves in prayer room

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

10. 2 December

Name: Rasmina Ibragimova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Industrial District Court, Smolensk

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded to VKontakte social network profile page

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

11. 26 November

Name: A.B.Koltakov

Fine: Unknown

Court: Komintern District Court, Voronezh

Material: unspecified Jehovah's Witness texts

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: None

12. 24 November

Name: Mikhail Ivantsov, pastor of "Banner of Love" Pentecostal Church

Fine: None - acquitted

Court: Igra District Court, Udmurt Republic

Material: Jehovah's Witness text "My book of Bible stories" (banned Rostov Regional Court, 11 September 2009) found among other books available for borrowing by parishioners, during inspection by prosecutor's office; pastor does not dispute that book was present but does not know how it came to be there; now destroyed by pastor's wife

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable – already destroyed

Appeal: None

13. 23 November

Name: Z.Z. Safiyullina

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Volzhsk City Court, Mari-El Republic

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" found on VKontakte profile page by FSB monitoring

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

14. 22 November

Name: A.N. Chebodayev

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Beya District Court, Khakasiya

Material: electronic copies of Islamic texts, uploaded onto VKontakte social network, found by FSB monitoring; "Purification and education and the need of Muslims for this", by Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (banned Abakan City Court, Khakasiya, 8 June 2010)

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

15. 19 November

Name: D.A. Aliyeva

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Gorodishche District Court, Penza Region

Material: Islamic brochure "Islam Today" by Abu Al-Mawdidi (banned Buguruslan City Court, Orenburg, 19 October 2007) found at house used as prayer hall, belonging to Aliyeva, during prosecutor's office "inspection of compliance with anti-extremism legislation"

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

16. 18 November

Name: Mansur Akhmadov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Lenin District Court, Perm

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" found on VKontakte profile page by Anti-Extremism Police monitoring

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None – accepts guilt

17. 17 November

Name: Ismail Kachayev

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kamenka City Court, Penza Region

Material: Islamic texts "Stories from the Koran" and "Understanding Islam" found in cupboard and on open bookshelf in Kobylkino Mosque No.2

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

18. 17 November

Name: A.R. Nurayev – shopkeeper

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Neftekamsk City Court, Bashkortostan

Material: Four copies of Islamic text "Values of Namaz"; one copy of "Values of Ramadan" (banned Norilsk City Court, Krasnoyarsk Region, 29 December 2014); one copy of "Values of Zikra" (banned by Pervouralsk City Court, Sverdlovsk Regional, 9 February 2015), all by Muhammad Zakariya Kandahlawi; four copies of "Fortress of a Muslim" (Nalchik 2004 edition – banned Kurgan City Court, 6 April 2015); found during "inspection of compliance with anti-extremism legislation" at "Muslim" shop

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

19. 16 November

Name: A.M. Magomedov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Soviet District Court, Bryansk

Material: Islamic text "Fortress of a Muslim", apparently single copy, no details of edition or situation

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: None

20. 16 November

Name: M.K. Egamov – prisoner

Fine: Unknown

Court: Kirovo-Chepetsk District Court, Kirov Region

Material: Islamic text "Thirty-three Windows" from Nursi's "Risale-e Nur" collection (banned Koptev District Court, Moscow, 21 May 2007), found in locker during inspection; defendant accused of giving book to other inmates "with the aim of mass distribution"

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

21. 11 November

Name: S.A. Petrova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Industrial District Court, Smolensk

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" found on VKontakte profile page during FSB monitoring

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

22. 6 November

Name: N.V. Mironenko

Fine: Unknown

Court and judge: Prokhladnyy District Court, Kabardino-Balkariya, Judge Andrei Blikanov

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts "What do you need to know about God and his purpose?", "How can we develop a close relationship with God?", "The secret of family happiness" distributed at bus stop

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

23. 6 November

Name: Lyudmila Ponomarenko

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Prokhladnyy District Court, Kabardino-Balkariya

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts "What do you need to know about God and his purpose?", "How can we develop a close relationship with God?", "The secret of family happiness" distributed at bus stop

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

24. 29 October

Name: Valentina Kuznetsova, a founder of Serov Jehovah's Witness community

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Serov District Court, Sverdlovsk Region

Material: 51 copies of Jehovah's Witness texts, incl. "What does the Bible really teach?", "Knowledge that leads to everlasting life", "Come and follow me", "My book of Bible stories", "Jehovah's Witnesses – who are they? What do they believe?"; Serov prosecutor inspected community for "compliance with the requirements of anti-extremism legislation" and searched Kuznetsova's flat

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 22 December, Sverdlovsk Regional Court

25. 29 October

Name: Vera Osadchaya

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Chernigovka District Court, Primorye

Material: Falun Gong texts (banned Pervomaisk District Court, Krasnodar, 27 October 2011); defendant tried to distribute material describing Chinese persecution of Falun Gong practitioners; five copies seized, two copies presented as evidence in court, supposedly given to the prosecutor's office by witnesses who said they had received the books from Osadchaya

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: Unsuccessful – Primorye Regional Court, 25 December

26. 23 October

Name: B.A. Avezov – prisoner

Fine: Unknown

Court: Kirovo-Chepetsk District Court, Kirov Region

Material: Islamic text "Fortress of a Muslim" (414-page Ezhayev edition – banned Kurgan City Court, 16 February 2015) found during unscheduled personal search

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

27. 20 October

Name: Galimzyan Bikmullin, chair of Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Tyumen Region, charged as official person

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Central District Court, Tyumen

Material: three Islamic texts from Said Nursi's "Risale-i Nur" collection ("Tract on nature", banned by Central District Court, Kaliningrad, 27 September 2012; "The truths of faith" and "Faith and man", both banned by Koptev District Court, Moscow, 21 May 2007) found when prosecutor's office and Anti-Extremism Police carried out search of Spiritual Administration's premises; material freely accessible to parishioners in the prayer hall

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 14 December 2015, Tyumen Regional Court

28. 13 October

Name: V.A. Yakushina

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Gelendzhik City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness text "Good news from God" (banned Lenin District Court, Vladimir, 23 October 2013) freely distributed to passers-by outside "Smotochka" shop with V.V. Biyul (see below), one of whom reported this to the police

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 5 November, Krasnodar Regional Court

29. 8 October

Name: R.A. Kan

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Lenin District Court, Vladivostok

Material: FSB search of flat found 3000 copies of "agitational material of an anti-Chinese nature", including 20 copies of a Falun Gong text (banned 27 October 2011) – could be "Chzhuan Falun"; "Report on Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China"; "Falun Dafa in the world"; "Global Torch Relay for Human Rights" (banned by Pervomaisk District Court, Krasnodar

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

30. 2 October

Name: R.M. Kuchukova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court and judge: Kuibyshev District Court, Omsk, Judge Galina Parkhomenko

Material: Islamic text "Gardens of the Righteous" (banned Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012 but removed from list, and not banned by any other court); text uploaded into VKontakte social network profile page; found during FSB monitoring "of the Omsk segment of the internet"

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

31. 2 October

Name: I.P. Antufyev

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: October District Court, Arkhangelsk

Material: two copies of Jehovah's Witness text "What does the Bible really teach?"; handed to FSB by witness brought in for questioning, who testified that Antufyev had given them to him

Confiscation/destruction: neither

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 5 November, Arkhangelsk Regional Court

32. 18 September

Name: V.V. Sirvetnik

Fine: None – acquitted

Court: Nadym City Court, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness brochures "Should you believe in the Trinity?" (banned Rostov Regional Court, 11 September 2009) and "What does God require from us?" (banned Gorno-Altaisk City Court, Altai Republic, 1 October 2009) found on another Jehovah's Witness, "A", who apparently signed statement saying she had received them from Sirvetnik

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

33. 16 September

Name: Yan Chernobay, charity president

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Kirov District Court, Samara

Material: Jehovah's Witness text "Worship the only God" (banned Rostov Regional Court 11 September 2009) found on open bookshelf during prosecutor's office inspection of premises of the "Independence" (Nezavisimost) charity (drug and alcohol rehab); president does not know how book could have got into the building

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

34. 11 September

Name: Jehovah's Witnesses of Elista

Fine: 100,000 Roubles

Court: Elista City Court, Republic of Kalymykiya

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts among those banned by Rostov Regional Court, 11 September 2009; prosecutor's office tipped off by two people who had allegedly attended services and received extremist books – search operation carried out by police – two packets containing brochures found in undergrowth in grounds of Kingdom Hall

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 9 November, Supreme Court of Kalmykiya; supervisory appeal unsuccessful – 25 December, Supreme Court of Kalmykiya (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

35. 11 September

Name: V.V. Biyul

Fine: Unknown

Court: Gelendzhik City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness text "Come and follow me" (banned Rostov Regional Court, 11 September 2009) freely distributed to passers-by outside hypermarket – with Yakushina (see above)

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 27 October, Krasnodar Regional Court

36. 3 September

Name: Kotlas Jehovah's Witness community

Fine: None – acquitted

Court: Kotlas City Court, Arkhangelsk Region

Material: One copy of Jehovah's Witness text (either "How do you know the true Christian?" or "Armageddon. What is it? When is it coming?", both banned Aktubinsk District Court, Astrakhan Region, 24 November 2014) and other brochures displaying www.jw.org address found on community's premises; judge concluded that website ban published on 7 August, after discovery of brochures on 3 June, and that "storage of a single copy of a publication does not indicate distribution of a mass nature or storage for the purpose of mass distribution"

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: By prosecution, unsuccessful – 29 September, Arkhangelsk Regional Court (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

37. 3 September

Name: Nikolai Suslonov, chair of Kotlas Jehovah's Witness community

Fine: None - acquitted

Court: Kotlas City Court, Arkhangelsk Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts – same as above in case against community

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

38. 2 September

Name: "NUR" local Muslim religious organisation, DUMAChR

Fine: 100,000 Roubles

Court: Central District Court, Komsomolsk-on-Amur

Material: two Islamic books – Abdurrahman Raafat al-Bashi's "Pictures from the Life of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah", banned by Gorodishche District Court, Penza Region, 21 February 2008, and Ibn Hisham's "The Life of the Prophet Mohammed", banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012 – found on community's premises

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction – but order lifted with respect to Orenburg text

Appeal: Unsuccessful, but changed to remove Orenburg text because of lifting of ban – 22 October, Khabarovsk Regional Court; supervisory appeal unsuccessful – 16 March 2016, Khabarovsk Regional Court (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

39. 2 September

Name: Magomedrasul Gimbatov, leader of "NUR" local Muslim religious organisation, DUMAChR

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court and judge: Central District Court, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Judge Nadezhda Tatun

Material: two Islamic books – Abdurrahman Raafat al-Bashi's "Pictures from the Life of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah", banned by Gorodishche District Court, Penza Region, 21 February 2008 and Ibn Hisham's "The Life of the Prophet Mohammed", banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012 – found on community's premises

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction – but order lifted with respect to Orenburg text

Appeal: Unsuccessful, but changed to remove Orenburg text because of lifting of ban – 22 October, Khabarovsk Regional Court; supervisory appeal also unsuccessful – 14 March 2016, Khabarovsk Regional Court (see F18News 2 March 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2154).

40. 1 September

Name: A. Khalimov, imam

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Tomponsk District Court, Sakha Republic

Material: Islamic texts "The Life of the Prophet" and "A word on unity" (both banned by Buguruslan City Court, Orenburg, 6 August 2007) found during police search of mosque

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

41. 13 August

Name: Asylbek Ryskaliyev, former imam

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Pallasovsky District Court, Volgograd Region

Material: 3 copies of Islamic text "Muhammad: may Allah bless and welcome him" by Safi al-Rahman al-Mubarakfuri (banned by Gorodishchensky District Court, Penza Region, 22 February 2008); 4 discs containing "Book of the Mujahid" by Amir Abdullag Shamil Abu Idris (banned by Shakhunsk District Court, Nizhny Novgorod Region, 9 September 2011), "The Life of the Prophet" by Safi al-Rahman al-Mubarakfuri, translated from Arabic by Abdullah Nirsha (Primorsk District Court, St Petersburg, 19 April 2011), and "Understanding Islam" by Sheikh Ali al-Tantawi (Maykop City Court, Adygea, 24 November 2010) – found in Muslim shop under auspices of local Muslim religious organisation, during FSB inspection of shopping centre

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

42. 6 August

Name: A.V. Ignatov

Fine: None – acquitted

Court: Vinogradovsky District Court, Arkhangelsk Region

Material: 838 copies of Jehovah's Witness literature found at Ignatov's home during law enforcement search, including "Drawing near to Jehovah" (banned by First of May District Court, Krasnodar, 22 April 2011) and "Questions of Youth: Practical Advice" (banned by Rostov Regional Court, 11 September 2009) – judge concludes Ignatov is guilty but time for prosecution has run out

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: by defendant against judge's conclusion of guilt, unsuccessful – 15 September 2015, Arkhangelsk Regional Court

43. 30 July

Name: Ramil Gazizov

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Sernur District Court, Mari El Republic

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto social network personal page, found by FSB monitoring

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

44. 28 July

Name: E.R. Zholdoshev

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Yakutsk City Court, Sakha Republic

Material: Single copy of "Islamic religious book" banned by Sol-Iletsky District Court, Orenburg Region, 28 May 2012 (appears to be an-Nawawi's "40 Hadiths"), seized during police raid on flat accommodating 8 Kyrgyz migrant workers

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

45. 24 July

Name: Makhalla No. 1371, Strezhevoy

Fine: 150,000 Roubles

Court and judge: Strezhevoy City Court, Tomsk Region, V.N. Miserev

Material: 9 Islamic books (redacted, but appears to include "Risale-i Nur" texts) found on open shelf in men's prayer hall of mosque, during inspection by FSB and prosecutor's office staff

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 1 October, Tomsk Regional Court (see F18News 14 October 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2111).

46. 22 July

Name: R.A. Khatipov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Chernushka District Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic texts - Volume 2 of "The best example of calling and upbringing. The most splendid person – may Allah bless and welcome him" by Omer Celik, Mustafa Ozturk and Murat Kay (Lenin District Court, Orenburg 21 March 2012); volumes 1 and 3 later unbanned

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: None

47. 16 July

Name: N.F. Safarov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Barda District Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto social network personal page, found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

48. 16 July

Name: S.V. Bakilin

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Motovilikha District Court, Perm

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto social network personal page, found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 10 August, Perm Regional Court

49. 2 July

Name: Vladimir Yeltavsky

Fine: None – 12 days' detention

Court: Bryukhovetsk District Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: "What does the Bible really teach?", "Is it true that God takes care of us?", and other Jehovah's Witness literature, given by defendant to unnamed witness at her home in March 2015

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: successful – 3 July, Krasnodar Regional Court (see F18News 14 October 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2111).

50. 26 June

Name: A.A. Zhukov (head of local JW organisation)

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Yugorsk District Court, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region, Tyumen Region

Material: total of 31 copies of various Jehovah's Witness books and brochures, including "What does the Bible really teach?", handed out at religious meetings at defendant's home; found during police search

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 27 August, Khanty-Mansiisk Regional Court

51. 19 June

Name: A.L. Beklayev

Fine: "minimum" fine, ie. 1,000 Roubles

Court: Chusovoy City Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte social network, found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

52. 19 June

Name: A.B. Abasov – prisoner

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Verkhnekamsk District Court, Kirov Region

Material: Islamic text "Book of Monotheism" by Muhammad at-Tamimi (banned by Savyolovo District Court, Moscow, 2 April 2004) given by defendant to fellow inmates, found in cell during inspection

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 20 August, Kirov Regional Court

53. 18 June

Name: R.R. Gilyazova

Fine: unknown

Court: Volzhsk City Court, Mari El Republic

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte social network

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

54. 17 June

Name: V.V. Spivak

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Teykovo District Court, Ivanovo Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness literature distributed outside Teykovo railway station, including "What does the Bible really teach?", "How to achieve happiness in life?", "What can people expect?", "What do you need to know about God and his purpose?", "How to develop a close relationship with God"; more kept at defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: Partially successful (fine reduced to 1000 because statute of limitations for station offence had expired, though not that for keeping literature in home), 13 August, Ivanovo Regional Court

55. 10 June

Name: I.S. Kozlov

Fine: Unknown

Court: Lenin District Court, Vladimir

Material: 6 text files uploaded to VKontakte personal page, containing Islamic books banned by Buguruslan City Court, Orenburg Region, 19 October 2007 – otherwise unspecified, but appears to include Muhammad Alia al-Hashimi's "Personality of a Muslim", which promotes peace and human rights

Confiscation/destruction: Deletion of files from VKontakte page

Appeal: None

56. 9 June

Name: G.R. Miftakhutdinova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Volzhsk City Court, Mari El Republic

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte social network

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

57. 3 June

Name: G.I. Abdulova

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Barda District Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte social network in 2011, found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

58. 27 May

Name: Metin Karakoch, director of Centre for the Turkish Language at Astrakhan State University

Fine: None – two days' detention

Court: Soviet District Court, Astrakhan

Material: text from Islamic books by Fethullah Gulen posted on local internet forum, with links to works and recommendations to read them; unknown which titles, though ban on several lifted in Orenburg

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation of computer equipment used

Appeal: None – subsequently left Russia (see F18News 14 October 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2111).

59. 22 May

Name: V.G. Lepyoshkina

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Golyshmanovo District Court, Tyumen Region

Material: distributed "What does the Bible really teach?" at Jehovah's Witness gathering in her home in March 2015

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: None

60. 8 May

Name: Musina

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Ordzhonikidze District Court, Perm

Material: Islamic text "The way to the Koran" by Elmir Kuliyev (Kuybyshev District Court, Omsk, 12 July and 10 August 2012 – but ban lifted in Orenburg) reposted on VKontakte page, fully accessible for viewing and download; found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None (see F18News 14 October 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2111).

61. 30 April

Name: Zulfiya Malikova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Bolshaya Sosnova District Court, Perm Region

Material: uploaded Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" onto VKontakte profile page; found during internet monitoring by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

62. 28 April

Name: I. Sh. Nigmatully

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region

Material: Islamic texts – Osman Nuri Topbas's "History of the Prophets", Parts 2 (3rd ed.) and 3 (4th ed.) kept in defendant's home (both banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012) and found during search by FSB

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

63. 28 April

Name: Guzaliya Galina

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Chaikovskiy City Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte profile page

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

64. 10 April

Name: A.A. Aliyev

Fine: Unknown

Court and judge: Birobidzhan District Court, Jewish Autonomous Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness texts including "Come and follow me", "Knowledge that leads to everlasting life", "What does the Bible really teach?"; "Questions of Youth" added by appeal judge

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction – ordered later by Birobidzhan District Court on 24 July 2015; overturned by Court of the Jewish Autonomous Region on 9 September as additions cannot be made to verdicts already in force; destruction ordered on re-examination by Birobidzhan District Court on 22 September; unsuccessful appeal by Aliyev on 19 October

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 16 June, Court of the Jewish Autonomous Region; supervisory appeal unsuccessful – 14 August, Court of the Jewish Autonomous Region

65. 8 April

Name: Maksim Tokayev

Fine: Unknown

Court: Novy Urengoy City Court, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region

Material: Islamic text – Muhammad at-Tamimi's "Book of Monotheism" – scanned copy uploaded to VKontakte; found during internet monitoring by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: unknown

Appeal: None

66. 8 April

Name: M.A. Kuvvatov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Lenin District Court, Voronezh

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded to social media

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

67. 31 March

Name: A.D. Ilchuk

Fine: Unknown

Court: Usolye City Court, Irkutsk Region

Material: unknown Jehovah's Witness brochure, found by police and Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

68. 31 March

Name: F.A. Ilchuk

Fine: Unknown

Court: Usolye City Court, Irkutsk Region

Material: same case as above – unknown Jehovah's Witness brochure, found by police and Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

69. 30 March

Name: Shamil Neverov, imam

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Spassk District Court, Penza Region

Material: Islamic text "Constellation of the Righteous Caliphs" (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); one copy found by law enforcement in Nizhny Lomov mosque library

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

70. 27 March

Name: Ye.A. Belyayeva

Fine: Unknown

Court: Kungur City Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto Vkontake social network

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

71. 26 March

Name: Yevgeny Menshenin

Fine: None – five days' administrative detention

Court: Kungur City Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto VKontakte profile page

Confiscation/destruction: Deletion from page

Appeal: None (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

72. 25 March

Name: S.K Sainova

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kirov District Court, Omsk

Material: Islamic text, Abu Zakariya's "Gardens of the Righteous" (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012) uploaded onto defendant's VKontakte profile page; found during FSB internet monitoring

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

73. 19 March

Name: F.M. Isayev

Fine: Unknown

Court: Kuvandyk District Court, Orenburg Region

Material: Islamic text – "Muhtasar Ilmihal [Concise Catechism], Introduction to Islam" (banned by Arsenyev City Court, Primorye, 24 December 2012) found on bookshelf in prayer room at defendant's home during police search

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

74. 19 March

Name: M.D. Shevchenko

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Leningrad District Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness book "Revelation, Its Grand Climax At hand!"; circumstances unspecified

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 19 May 2015, Krasnodar Regional Court

75. 17 March

Name: Jehovah's Witness community of Cherkessk

Fine: 50,000 Roubles

Court: Cherkessk City Court, Republic of Karachay-Cherkessiya

Material: Large quantity of Jehovah's Witness literature, including single copies of "Questions of Youth. Practical advice" and "What do you need to know about God and his purpose?"; some seized from prayer hall by prosecutor's officials and Anti-Extremism Police; some from community members' homes; tip-off from Cherkessk resident

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Unsuccessful – 27 April 2015, Supreme Court of Karachay-Cherkessiya (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

76. 17 March

Name: A.V. Volovikov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Cherkessk City Court, Republic of Karachay-Cherkessiya

Material: Jehovah's Witness literature, same as above – seized from defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Partially successful, sent for re-examination – Supreme Court of Karachay-Cherkessiya (date unknown); re-trial on 13 May – convicted again, Cherkessk City Court; appeal submitted to Supreme Court of Karachay-Cherkessiya – outcome as yet unknown (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

77. 17 March

Name: D.V. Metelin

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Cherkessk City Court, Republic of Karachay-Cherkessiya

Material: Jehovah's Witness literature, same as above – seized from defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: Partially successful, sent for re-examination – Supreme Court of Karachay-Cherkessiya (date unknown); re-trial on 13 May – convicted again, Cherkessk City Court; appeal submitted to Supreme Court of Karachay-Cherkessiya – outcome unknown (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

78. 5 March

Name: Anna Vilchinskaya, library director – charged as official person

Fine: Unknown

Court: Rybno-Slobodsky District Court, Tatarstan

Material: Single copy of Islamic text "Pillars of Islam and Faith", by Muhammad bin Jamil Zeno (banned by Pervomaysky District Court, Vladivostok), and 2 copies of "Stories from the Life of the Prophet of Allah", Book 2 of the "Religious Narrative" series compiled by Abdel Hamid Dzhuda Al-Sahhar (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found by prosecutors and Anti-Extremism Police during search of library

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

79. 2 March

Name: G.Sh. Aldarova

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Barda District Court, Perm Region

Material: Islamic video "The Wonders of the Koran" uploaded onto social network profile and found by Anti-Extremism Police

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

80. 27 February

Name: A.N. Nigamatullin

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region

Material: Single copies of Islamic texts "Fortress of a Muslim" (3rd ed.) and "Constellation of the Righteous Caliphs" (both banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found by FSB in search of defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

81. 27 February

Name: R.R. Kaziyev

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region

Material: Islamic literature, including "Constellation of the Righteous Prophets" (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found by FSB in search of defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

82. 26 February

Name: S.S. Khusutdinov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region

Material: Islamic literature including "Constellation of the Righteous Caliphs", "Gardens of the Righteous", and "The Way to the Koran" by Elmir Kuliyev (all banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found by FSB in search of defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

83. 26 February

Name: I.D. Sultanov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region, Judge N.G. Nuretdinova

Material: Islamic text "Fortress of a Muslim" (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found by FSB in search of defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

84. 25 February

Name: I.A. Norvatov

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Kunashak District Court, Chelyabinsk Region

Material: Islamic texts "Muhtasar Ilmihal [Concise Catechism], Introduction to Islam" (banned by Arsenyev City Court, Primorye, 24 December 2012) and "Proper behaviour and purification of the soul" by Abdul-Aziz al-Abdul Latif (banned by Sol-Iletsky District Court, Orenburg Region, 28 May 2012); found by FSB in search of defendant's home

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None

85. 24 February

Name: Vasiliy Platon

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Tikhoretsk City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: Jehovah's Witness literature including "How To Achieve Happiness" (banned by Central District Court, Barnaul, 10 July 2014) distributed in the street

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

86. 24 February

Name: Vasiliy Platon

Fine: 1,000 Roubles

Court: Tikhoretsk City Court, Krasnodar Region

Material: concurrent prosecution for second, similar incident; Jehovah's Witness literature including "How To Achieve Happiness" (banned 10 July 2014 by Central District Court, Barnaul)

Confiscation/destruction: Destruction

Appeal: None (see F18News 15 May 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2062).

87. 3 February

Name: Yu.T. Tursunkhuzhayev, imam

Fine: 3,000 Roubles

Court: Mirninsky District Court, Yakutia

Material: Single copies of two editions of Islamic text "In the Light of the Holy Koran" (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found on shelves in Aikhal village mosque's prayer hall

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

88. 28 January

Name: Mehdi Nabulsi, Moroccan student

Fine: 1,500 Roubles

Court: Novgorod District Court, Novgorod Region

Material: PDF copy of Islamic text "The Way to the Koran" by Elmir Kuliyev (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); uploaded onto VKontakte profile page, found by FSB

Confiscation/destruction: Not applicable

Appeal: None

89. 26 January

Name: Pavel Zavitayev, head of education at Correction Colony No. 2, Sverdlovsk Region

Fine: 2,000 Roubles

Court: Verkh-Isetsky District Court, Yekaterinburg

Material: Single copy of Islamic text "The Life of the Prophet Mohammed" by Ibn Hisham (banned by Lenin District Court, Orenburg, 21 March 2012); found in prison mosque during prosecutors' inspection

Confiscation/destruction: Confiscation

Appeal: None

(END)

For more background, see Forum 18's surveys of the general state of freedom

of religion or belief in Russia at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1722, and of the dramatic decline in religious freedom related to Russia's Extremism Law at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1724.

A personal commentary by Alexander Verkhovsky, Director of the SOVA Center for Information and Analysis http://www.sova-center.ru, about the systemic problems of Russian anti-extremism legislation, is at F18News 19 July 2010 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1468.

A personal commentary by Irina Budkina, Editor of the http://www.samstar.ucoz.ru Old Believer website, about continuing denial of equality to Russia's religious minorities, is at F18News 26 May 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=570.

More reports on freedom of thought, conscience and belief in Russia can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?query=&religion=all&country=10.

A compilation of Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) freedom of religion or belief commitments can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1351.

A printer-friendly map of Russia is available at http://nationalgeographic.org/education/mapping/outline-map/?map=Russia.

Twitter: @Forum_18

Follow us on Facebook: @Forum18NewsService

All Forum 18 News Service material may be referred to, quoted from, or republished in full, if Forum 18 <www.forum18.org> is credited as the source.