11 November 2013

KAZAKHSTAN: At least 153 fines in 2013 – and counting

By Felix Corley, Forum 18

Many people have been fined in 2013 in Kazakhstan for the "offence" of exercising freedom of religion or belief without state permission. So far in 2013, at least 153 administrative fines have been imposed on 126 named individuals, some of whom have been fined up to five times, according to a list compiled by Forum 18 News Service. Fines have mostly been equivalent to either one or two months' average salary. Such fines, including fines for refusal to pay such unjust penalties, have been imposed on Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Hare Krishna devotees and Muslims. In addition, twelve fines were imposed on commercial booksellers and other traders. If people refuse to pay such fines – imposed against Kazakhstan's international human rights obligations - they can also be banned from leaving the country. The list of documented fines is incomplete as state authorities refuse to make information public. Fines for the "offence" of exercising a human right without state permission are still being imposed.

At least 153 administrative fines have been handed down in Kazakhstan so far in 2013 on 126 named individuals (some of them up to five times) to punish them for exercising the right to freedom of religion, according to a list compiled by Forum 18 News Service. A further individual was given a written warning. Four more named individuals were given small administrative fines and two were given short-term imprisonment in 2013 for failing to pay earlier fines.

Others are known to have been given administrative fines in 2013 to punish them for exercising the right to freedom of religion, but Forum 18 has been unable to find their names.

Fines are handed down for such "offences" as leading or meeting for worship without the compulsory state registration; selling or distributing religious literature which has not undergone state censorship and in a place which does not have a state licence to sell religious materials; sharing one's faith with others without being personally registered as "missionaries"; and inviting others to attend religious meetings (see eg. F18News 30 October 2013 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1891).

Fines

All the known administrative fines together so far in 2013 total 10,960 Minimum Financial Indicators (MFIs). Throughout 2013 one MFI has been 1,731 Tenge. This means the total level of known administrative fines levied so far in 2013 to punish individuals for exercising the right to freedom of religion has reached 18,971,760 Tenge (735,000 Norwegian Kroner, 88,000 Euros or 118,000 US Dollars).

The biggest known administrative fines so far in 2013 (Cherkasov and Zhaksybai) were of 200 MFIs. A total of 59 known fines of 100 MFIs and 87 of 50 MFIs were handed down. The remaining four fines were of 5 MFIs or less.

A fine of 100 MFIs - 173,100 Tenge (7,000 Norwegian Kroner, 850 Euros or 1,100 US Dollars) - is about two months' average wages.

Administrative Code punishments

A total of 21 known fines were handed down under Administrative Code Article 374-1, Part 1 ("Leading, participating in, or financing an unregistered, halted, or banned religious community or social organisation").

A total of 57 known fines and one known official warning were handed down under Administrative Code Article 374-1, Part 2 ("Participation in the activity of an unregistered, halted, or banned religious community or social organisation").

A total of 40 known fines were handed down under Administrative Code Article 375, Part 1 ("Violation of the demands established in law for the conducting of religious rites, ceremonies and/or meetings; carrying out of charitable activity; the import, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other materials of religious content (designation) and objects of religious significance; and building of places of worship and changing the designation of buildings into places of worship").

A total of 33 known fines were handed down under Administrative Code Article 375, Part 3 ("The carrying out of missionary activity by citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, foreigners and persons without citizenship without registration (re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, informational materials of religious content or objects of religious significance without a positive assessment of a religious studies expert analysis").

Two known fines were handed down under Administrative Code Article 375, Part 9 (which punishes repeat "offences" under other parts of Article 375 within one year).

Six individuals are known to have been punished under Administrative Code Article 524 ("Failure to carry out court decisions") for refusing to pay earlier fines handed down under Article 374-1 or Article 375.

Who were fine victims?

Of the known 153 fines under Article 374-1 and Article 375, 84 were on Council of Churches Baptists and one on a visitor to one of their services, 28 on Jehovah's Witnesses, 9 on New Life church members, 6 on Full Gospel Christians, 3 on Hare Krishna devotees, 4 on Muslims, 2 on Pentecostal Christians, 2 on Protestants, 1 on a Grace Church member, 1 on another Baptist. Twelve were on commercial book-sellers and traders.

Of the known punishments under Article 524 (small fines or short term imprisonment), 4 were on Council of Churches Baptists and 2 were on Muslims.

Council of Churches Baptists have a policy of not seeking state registration for any of their communities and of not paying fines imposed to punish them for exercising their right to freedom of religion.

Many of those who refused to pay administrative fines for exercising the right to freedom of religion have been banned from leaving Kazakhstan (see F18News 10 June 2013 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1845).

Among those banned from leaving Kazakhstan is the former Soviet-era religious prisoner of conscience Yegor Prokopenko. The oldest of the known individuals fined for religious activity in 2013, he will be 87 on 25 November. Pensioners in their seventies have also been among those fined in 2013 (Dyakova, aged 77; Bakenova, aged 76; Gileva, aged 73).

Appeals fail to overturn fines

Administrative punishments are initially handed down by a District Court or a Specialised Administrative Court. Appeals, when lodged, are heard by a Regional Court or, in the case of Astana and Almaty, by the City Court.

In none of the cases of the named individuals, of which Forum 18 has documented information, did the appeal hearing overturn the guilty finding or the fine imposed. In one case (Cherkasov) the appeal overturned court-ordered religious book destruction. In another (Geller) the appeal overturned a three-month ban on the community's activity.

Other unknown victims

Among other unknown victims are five of six individuals fined 100 MFIs each in early 2013 in Petropavl, North Kazakhstan Region, for selling religious literature without the required state licence. Forum 18 has identified only one of these (Nedogarko). The Prosecutor's Office and the court refused to provide the names of the other five to Forum 18 (see F18News 4 November 2013 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1892).

Nor does it include the majority of the eight unnamed individuals which Aktobe Regional Prosecutor's Office announced on 10 October had been "brought to administrative accountability" under Administrative Code Article 375, Part 1 between January and September 2013 for the "illegal" distribution of religious literature.

The Kazakh authorities appear not to publish data on the total number of convictions under specific Articles of the Administrative Code which punish exercising the right to freedom of religion.

Documented list

Listed are name (number of individual's fine if more than one); religious affiliation; date and court of first hearing; date and court of appeal hearing (if any); Administrative Code Article; fine or other punishment.

Known fines for exercising freedom of religion or belief

1. Nadezhda Shefer; Jehovah's Witness; 15 January Aktau Specialised Administrative Court; 11 February Mangistau Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

2. Natalia Lashova; Jehovah's Witness; 15 January Aktau Specialised Administrative Court; 8 February Mangistau Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

3. Dana Abekenov; CC Baptist; 21 January Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court, Aktobe Region; Article 374-1, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

4. Roman Pugachev; CC Baptist; 28 January Ualikhan District Court; 25 February North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

5. Aleksandr Pukhov; CC Baptist; 28 January Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court; 18 February North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

6. Aleksandr Kerker; CC Baptist; 30 January Taiynsha District Court; 18 February North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

7. Fauzi Gubaidullin; CC Baptist; 12 February Shymkent Specialised Administrative Court; 28 February South Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

8. Yuri Bronitsky; CC Baptist; 12 February Almaty Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; 28 February Almaty City Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

9. Sergei Krasnov; CC Baptist; 12 February Oral Specialised Administrative Court, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

10. Dmitry Isaev; CC Baptist; 12 February Oral Specialised Administrative Court, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

11. Sergei Prosuntsov; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

12. Gulmira Prosuntsova; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

13. Aida Aytkaliyeva; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

14. Aleksandr Krinitsky; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

15. Ayzhan Krinitskaya; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

16. Vyacheslav Zhdanov; Full Gospel; 14 February Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

17. Aliaskar Orynbayev; CC Baptist; 21 February Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court (in absentia); Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

18. Serkali Kumargaliyev; CC Baptist; 26 February Oral Specialised Administrative Court, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

19. Galina Kelsh, Commercial; 28 February Auliekol District Court; 8 April Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

20. Pavel Leonov; CC Baptist; 4 March Ayagoz District Court; 1 April East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

21. Vyacheslav Cherkasov; CC Baptist; 5 March Burabai District Specialised Administrative Court; 26 March Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs (plus book destruction, later overturned).

22. Sergei Krasnov (2); CC Baptist; 7 March Oral Specialised Administrative Court, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

23. Viktor Maksin; CC Baptist; 7 March Zelenovsky District Court No. 2, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

24. Valeri Alekseev; Jehovah's Witness; 12 March Mamlyut District Court; 11 April North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

25. Nikolai Kokotov; Jehovah's Witness; 12 March Mamlyut District Court; 11 April North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

26. Serkali Kumargaliyev (2); CC Baptist; 27 March Oral Specialised Administrative Court; 18 April West Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

27. Mariya Dukeeva; Commercial; 29 March Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court (in absentia); Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

28. Nurbolat Zhaksybai; Commercial; 1 April Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

29. Vladimir Nelepin; CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

30. Nikolai Novikov; CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

31. Serkali Kumargaliyev (3); CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; 25 April West Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

32. Dmitry Isaev (2); CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

33. Kenzhetai Baytinov; CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; 25 April West Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

34. Aleksandr Yalfimov; CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

35. Sergei Krasnov (3); CC Baptist; 4 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

36. Valentina Dyakova; CC Baptist; 5 April Ayagoz District Court; 30 April East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

37. Tatyana Agaeva; CC Baptist; 5 April Ayagoz District Court; 2 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

38. Vera Poltoratskaya CC Baptist; 5 April Ayagoz District Court; 30 April East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

39. Viktor Poltoratsky; CC Baptist; 5 April Ayagoz District Court; 2 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

40. Svetlana Zaitseva; CC Baptist; 8 April Ayagoz District Court; 2 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

41. Natalya Andryusheva; CC Baptist; 8 April Ayagoz District Court; 2 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

42. Raisa Bakenova; CC Baptist; 8 April Ayagoz District Court; 30 April East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

43. Vitaly Krasilnikov; CC Baptist; 9 April Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 30 April East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

44. Grigory Pryakhin; CC Baptist; 16 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

45. Valentina Neulybina; CC Baptist; 16 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

46. Ivan Isaev; CC Baptist; 16 April Akzhaik District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

47. Yegor Prokopenko; CC Baptist; 17 April Zyryanovsk Specialised Administrative Court; 13 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

48. Vladimir Verichev; Pentecostal; 17 April Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 3 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

49. Nina Afanasyeva; New Life; 18 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

50. Natalya Mananskaya; New Life; 18 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

51. Yekaterina Balaeva; New Life; 18 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

52. Oleg Savitsky; New Life; 18 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

53. Vitaly Savitsky; New Life; 19 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

54. Aleksei Murai; New Life; 19 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

55. Aleksandr Balaev; New Life; 19 April Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

56. Natalya Gavlik; Commercial; 25 April Shakhtinsk Specialised Administrative Court, Karaganda Region; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

57. Galina Klynina; Jehovah's Witness; 25 April Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court; 23 May North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

58. Aleksandr Folomeyev; Jehovah's Witness; 26 April Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court; 23 May North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

59. Natalya Arkhipova; Commercial; 2 May Burabai District Court; 28 May Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

60. Tatyana Pyankova; Commercial; 2 May Burabai District Court; 28 May Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

61. Gulnara Imramziyeva; New Life; 6 May Borodulikha District Court; 29 May East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

62. Galina Gileva; New Life; 6 May Borodulikha District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

63. Saule Serikpayeva; Commercial; 8 May Katon-Karagai District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs (plus literature destruction).

64. Sergey Chuvashkin; Jehovah's Witness; 13 May Esil District Court; 7 June Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

65. Anna Nedogarko; Commercial; 13 May Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

66. Sergei Krasnov (4); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

67. Vladimir Nelepin (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

68. Valentina Neulybina (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

69. Grigory Pryakhin (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

70. Nikolai Novikov (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

71. Kenzhetai Baytinov (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

72. Dmitry Isaev (3); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

73. Ivan Isaev (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

74. Sergei Krasnov (5); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

75. Serkali Kumargaliyev (4); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

76. Aleksandr Yalfimov (2); CC Baptist; 20 May Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

77. Serkali Kumargaliyev (5); CC Baptist; 20 May Oral Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

78. Arman Abdullinov; Jehovah's Witness; 20 May Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 17 June East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

79. Marat Seleubayev; Jehovah's Witness; 20 May Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 17 June East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

80. Zhangazy Biyimbetov; Jehovah's Witness; 21 May Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 17 June East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

81. Sergei Bronitsky; CC Baptist; 27 May Almaty Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

82. Tamara Yakovenko; CC Baptist; 27 May Almaty Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

83. Viktor Lim; Baptist; 27 May Karatal District Court; 13 June Almaty Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs; plus deportation.

84. Ivan Frizen; CC Baptist; 28 May Almaty Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court (in absentia); Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

85. Zarina Burova; Jehovah's Witness; 6 June Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court; 25 June Atyrau Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

86. Sergei Kulikov; CC Baptist; 6 June Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 3 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

87. Maksim Kandyba; CC Baptist; 6 June Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 3 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

88. Sergei Bezman; Grace; 7 June Karaganda Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

89. Nail Agatanov; CC Baptist; 10 June Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 4 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

90. Sergei Pelipenko; CC Baptist; 10 June Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 4 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

91. Marina Kulikova; CC Baptist; 10 June Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 4 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

92. Ivan Yantsen; CC Baptist; 10 June Temirtau Specialised Administrative Court; 27 June Karaganda Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

93. Aleksandr Yalfimov (3); CC Baptist; 14 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

94. Natalya Yalfimova; CC Baptist; 14 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

95. Malik Sultangaliyev; CC Baptist; 14 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

96. Tatyana Osipova; CC Baptist; 14 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

97. Gulmira Ismagulova; CCB visitor; 14 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

98. Gaukhar Sultangaliyeva; CC Baptist; 17 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

99. Tatyana Sultangaliyeva; CC Baptist; 17 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

100. Yelena Zagaychuk; CC Baptist; 17 June Taskala District Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

101. Andrey Korolev; Jehovah's Witness; 21 June Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court; 22 July Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

102. Andrei Rakin; Jehovah's Witness; 21 June Kokshetau City Specialised Administrative Court; 22 July Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

103. Sofya Bunyak; CC Baptist; 27 June Ekibastuz Specialised Administrative Court; 15 July Pavlodar Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

104. Andrei Moiseyenko; Jehovah's Witness; 2 July Karabalyk District Court; 15 August Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

105. Ivan Vengelevsky; Jehovah's Witness; 3 July Karabalyk District Court; 15 August Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

106. Irina Malykhina; Jehovah's Witness; 4 July Karabalyk District Court; 1 August Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

107. Eduard Malykhin; Jehovah's Witness; 5 July Karabalyk District Court; 1 August Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

108. Grigory Pryakhin (3); CC Baptist; 9 July Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

109. Kenzhetai Baytinov (3); CC Baptist; 9 July Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

110. Dmitry Isaev (4); CC Baptist; 9 July Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

111. Ivan Isaev (3); CC Baptist; 9 July Akzhaik District Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

112. Grigory Olshanov; CC Baptist; 11 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 31 July East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

113. Tatyana Degterenko; CC Baptist; 11 July Astrakhan District Court; 30 July Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

114. Aleksandr Gorbunov; CC Baptist; 16 July Astrakhan District Court; 7 August Akmola Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

115. Vasili Pede; CC Baptist; 17 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

116. Igor Kunitsyn; CC Baptist; 17 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

117. Yelena Gordeyeva; CC Baptist; 17 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 3 October East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

118. Anastasiya Gordeyeva; CC Baptist; 17 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 25 September East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

119. Serik Bisembayev; Pentecostal; 17 July Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court; 9 August Kyzylorda Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

120. Lyubov Artamonova; Jehovah's Witness; 17 July Karaganda Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; 7 August Karaganda Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

121. Anissa Tsimfer; Jehovah's Witness; 17 July Karaganda Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; 7 August Karaganda Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

122. Marat Tlegenov; Protestant; 23 July Shardara District Court, South Kazakhstan Region; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

123. Viktor Kandyba; CC Baptist; 24 July Semei Specialised Administrative Court; 25 September East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

124. Vyacheslav Flocha; CC Baptist; 30 July Zhaksy District Court No. 2; 20 August Akmola Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

125. Zhasulan Alzhanov; CC Baptist; 9 August Burabai Specialised Administrative Court; 27 August Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

126. Vyacheslav Cherkasov (2); CC Baptist; 15 August Burabai Specialised Administrative Court; 20 September Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 9; 200 MFIs.

127. Saruar Kyzbikenova; Commercial; 23 August Aiyrtau District Court; 27 September North Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

128. Inoyatzhan Ismailov; Muslim; 2 September Karaganda Inter-district Specialised Administrative Court; 24 September Karaganda Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

129. Zhanna Nurzhanova; Jehovah's Witness; 4 September Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court; 24 September Kyzylorda Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

130. Anna Merkusheva; Jehovah's Witness; 4 September Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court; 24 September Kyzylorda Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

131. Umirzak Abdikanov, Hare Krishna; 18 September Kostanai Specialised Administrative Court; 8 October Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

132. Nagashybai Sharekenov; Muslim; 18 September Pavlodar District Court; 17 October Pavlodar Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

133. Serik Bazarbayev; Muslim; 18 September Pavlodar District Court; 17 October Pavlodar Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

134. Zakhar Ustimenko; Jehovah's Witness; 18 September Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court; 9 October East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

135. Zhansaya Begimbetova; Jehovah's Witness; 19 September Ayagoz District Court; 16 October East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

136. Oralbek Belgibai; Commercial; 20 September Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court; 22 October Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

137. Pyotr Volkov; Commercial; 23 September Astana Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; 16 October Astana City Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

138. Nurbolat Zhaksybai (2); Commercial; 23 September Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court; 23 October Aktobe Regional Court; Article 375, Part 9; 200 MFIs.

139. Pyotr Vatulko; Protestant; 24 September Zharma District Court; 6 November East Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs (plus literature destruction).

140. Aron Reimer; CC Baptist; 26 September Karaganda Specialised Administrative Court; 16 October Karaganda Regional Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

141. Zhasira Tunguskova; Jehovah's Witness; 26 September Ayagoz District Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

142. Mukhammad Toleu; Muslim; 27 September Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

143. Zhansaya Begimbetova (2); Jehovah's Witness; 1 October Ayagoz District Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

144. Sergei Geller; Hare Krishna; 2 October, Kostanai Specialised Administrative Court; 24 October Kostanai Regional Court; Article 375, Part 1; 100 MFIs (plus 3-month halting of the community's activity, overturned on appeal).

145. Altinai Ayatova; Jehovah's Witness; 8 October Astana Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court; 24 October Astana City Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

146. Galina Mikhailova; Jehovah's Witness; 9 October Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court; 29 October Akmola Regional Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

147. Umirzak Abdikanov (2); Hare Krishna; 9 October Kostanai Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

148. Nikolai Popov; CC Baptist; 29 October Balkhash Specialised Administrative Court; Article 374-1, Part 1; 100 MFIs.

149. Denis Yenenko; CC Baptist; 30 October Shal-akyn District Court, North Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

150. Sergei Lantsov; CC Baptist; 30 October Shal-akyn District Court, North Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; 50 MFIs.

151. Olga Zholnerova; Jehovah's Witness; 30 October Semei Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 3; 100 MFIs.

152. Zhasulan Alzhanov (2); CC Baptist; 5 November Burabai Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

153. Sergei Golovanenko; CC Baptist; 5 November Burabai Specialised Administrative Court; Article 375, Part 1; 50 MFIs.

Known official warning

1. Viktor Nelepin; CC Baptist; 6 March Oral Specialised Administrative Court, West Kazakhstan Region; Article 374-1, Part 2; official warning.

Known 2013 punishments for refusing to pay earlier fines

1. Rafael Bayshev; Muslim; 4 March Oral Specialised Administrative Court; 10 April West Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 524; one MFI.

2. Kamil Bayshev; Muslim; 4 March Oral Specialised Administrative Court; 10 April West Kazakhstan Regional Court; Article 524; one MFI.

3. Aleksei Asetov; CC Baptist; 4 May Ekibastuz Specialised Administrative Court; Article 524; 3 day jail.

4. Aleksei Buka; CC Baptist; 13 May Nuri District Court, Karaganda Region; Article 524; 3 MFIs.

5. Roman Pugachev; CC Baptist; 24 July Ualikhan District Court; Article 524; 5 MFIs.

6. Pastor Leonov; CC Baptist; 5 August Ayagoz District Court; Article 524; one day jail. (END)

Reports on freedom of thought, conscience and belief in Kazakhstan can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?query=&religion=all&country=29.

For more background, see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1352.

For a personal commentary from 2005 on how attacking religious freedom damages national security in Kazakhstan, see F18News http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=564.

A compilation of Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) freedom of religion or belief commitments can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1351.

A printer-friendly map of Kazakhstan is available at http://education.nationalgeographic.com/mapping/outline-map/?map=Kazakhstan.

All Forum 18 News Service material may be referred to, quoted from, or republished in full, if Forum 18 <www.forum18.org> is credited as the source.